Cryocrystallography: References



  • Haas, D. J. & Rossmann, M. G.
    Crystallographic Studies on Lactate Dehydrogenase at -75°C.
    Acta Cryst. B26, 998-1004, (1970)
  • Petsko, G. A.
    Protein Crystallography at Sub-zero Temperatures: Cryo-protective Mother Liquors for Protein Crystals.
    J. Mol. Biol. 96, 381-392 (1975)
  • Dewan, J. C. & Tilton, R. F.
    Greatly Reduced Radiation Damage in Ribonuclease Crystals Mounted on Glass Fibers.
    J. Appl. Cryst. 20, 130-132 (1987)
  • Hope, H.
    Cryocrystallography of Biological Macromolecules: a Generally Applicable Method.
    Acta Cryst. B44, 22-26 (1988)
  • Hope, H., Frolow, F., von B�hlen, K., Makowski, I., Kratky, C., Halfon, Y., Danz, H., Webster, P., Bartels, K. S., Wittmann, H. G. &. Yonath, A.
    Cryocrystallography of Ribosomal Particles.
    Acta Cryst. B45, 190-199 (1989)
  • Teng, T-Y
    Mounting of Crystals for Macromolecular Crystallography in a Free-standing Thin Film
    J. Appl. Cryst. 23, 387-391 (1990)




  • Garman, E. F. & Schneider, T. R.
    Macromolecular Cryocrystallography.
    J. Appl. Cryst. 30, 211-237 (1997)
  • Rodgers, D. W.
    Structure 2, 1135-1140 (1994)
  • Watenpaugh, K.
    Macromolecular Crystallography at Cryogenic Temperatures.
    Current Opin. in Struct. Biol. 1, 1012-1015, (1991)




  • Greubel, K. H., Gmelin, E., Moser, N., Mensing, C. & Walz, L.
    Application of Liquid Helium Continuous Flow Cryostats to Solid State Research: X-ray Diffractometer and Magneto-optical Microscope.
    Cryogenics 30, 457-462 (1990)
  • Hanson, B. L., Martin, A., Harp, J. M., Parrish, D. A., Bunick, C. G., Kirschbaum, K., Pinkerton, A. A. & Bunick, G. J.
    Use of an Open-flow Helium Cryostat for Macromolecular Cryocrystallography.
    J. Appl. Cryst. 32, 814-820 (1999)
  • Hardie, M. J., Kirschbaum, K., Martin, A. & Pinkerton, A. A.
    An Open-flow Helium Cryostat for Single-crystal X-ray Diffraction Experiments.
    J. Appl. Cryst. 31, 815-817 (1998)
  • Teng, T.-Y., Schildkamp, W., Dolmer, P. & Moffat, K.
    Two Open-flow Cryostats for Macromolecular Crystallography.
    J. Appl. Cryst., 27, 133-139 (1994)



Flash Cooling Rate

  • Teng, T-Y. & Moffat, K.
    Cooling Rates During Flash Cooling.
    J. Appl. Cryst. 31, 252-257 (1998)
  • Walker, L. J., Moreno, P. O. & Hope, H.
    Cryocrystallography: Effect of Cooling Medium on Sample Cooling Rate.
    J. Appl. Cryst. 31, 954-956 (1998)



Crystal Lifetime And Radiation Damage

  • Burmeister, W. P.
    Structural Changes in a Cryo-Cooled Protein Crystal Owing to Radiation Damage.
    Acta Cryst. D56, 328-341 (2000)
  • Gonzalez, A., & Nave, C.
    Radiation Damage in Protein Crystals at Low Temperature.
    Acta cryst. D50, 874-877 (1994)
  • Henderson, R.
    Cryo-Protection of Protein Crystals Against Radiation Damage in Electron and X-ray Diffraction.
    Proc. Roy. Soc. LondonB241, 6-8 (1990)
  • Nave, C.
    Radiation Damage in Protein Crystallography.
    Radiat. Phys. Chem. 45, 483-490 (1995)
  • Ravelli, R. B. G. & McSweeney, S. M.
    The 'Fingerprint' that X-rays Can Leave on Structures.
    Structure 8, 315-328 (2000)
  • Teng, T.-Y. & Moffat, K.
    Primary Radiation Damage of Protein Crystals by an Intense Synchrotron X-ray Beam.
    J. Synchrotron Rad. 7, 313-317 (2000)
  • Walsh, M. A., Dementieva, I., Evans, G., Sanishvili, R. & Joachimiak, A.
    Taking MAD to the Extreme: Ultrafast Protein Structure Determination.
    Acta cryst. D55, 1168-1173 (1999)
  • Weik, M., Ravelli, R. B. G., Kryger, G., McSweeney, S., Raves, M. L., Harel, M., Gros, P., Silman, I., Kroon, J. & Sussman, J.
    Specific Chemical and Structural Damage to Proteins Produce by Synchrotron Radiation.
    Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 623-628 (2000)
  • Young, A. C. M. & Dewan, J. C.
    Enhancement in Resolution and Lack of Radiation Damage in a Rapidly Frozen Lysozyme Crystal Subjected to High-intensity Synchrotron Radiation.
    J. Appl. Cryst. 23, 215-218 (1990)